San Qi - Panax notoginseng

Professional Data
 Pin Yin
San Qi
Radix Notoginseng
 Introduction Back to Top
Radix Notoginseng is the dried root of Panax notoginseng (Burk. ) F. H. Chen (Fam. Araliaceae). The drug is collected before flowering in autumn, washed clean, divided into main root, branch root and rhizome, and dried. The branch root known as "Jintiao" and rhizome is known as "Jiankou".

 Western medical Back to Top
san qi is indicated in the treatement of pain syndrome, chronic renal failure, prostatic hyperplasia, bleeding due to ulcer, ulcerative colitis and enteritis, etc..

 Eastern medical Back to Top
  • Pattern: Activates Blood, dissolves stagnant Blood, invigorates qi, stops bleeding, dissolves swelling and alleviates pain.
  • Properties: Sweet, slightly bitter, warm.
  • Channels entered: Liver and Stomach.
 Chemical constituents Back to Top
The main effective ingredient in san qi is saponins. It also contains flavones, sterol, alkaloids, fat, protein and vilatile oil, etc..

 Pharmacological actions Back to Top
Effects on the cardiovascular system

san qi could lower the heart rate, increase the blood flow volume in coronary vessles and decrease the resistance of coronary vessles when the peripheral resistance and arterial pressure were stable. san qi and its total saponins could lower blood pressure. The total saponins could also protect arrhythmia in mice or rats.

Influnece over blood viscosity

Water decoction-alcohol precipitation of san qi could lower packed cell volume, increase RBC electrophoresis speed, improve erythrocyte deformability and lower platelet adhesiveness. Total saponins of san qi could lower platelet aggregation.

Hemostatic effect

san qi had no hemostatic effect in vitro. But oral administration of san qi powder to anaesthetized dogs could shorten the coagulation time of blood from the jugular vein.

Effect on tumors

Single application of san qi had no tumor-inhibiting effect, while combination of san qi and radiotherapy had much stronger inhibitory effect on tumors.


Total saponins of san qi had analgesic and sedative effects. It could inhibit SGPT increasing induced by CCl4 in mice, lower high blood suar in mice and promote the synthesis of DNA and protein in the liver of mice. san qi powder could lower blood cholesterol.

 Clinical Studies Back to Top
Pain in liver cancer of late stage

Xin Guan Pian (san qi, niu huang, zhong jie feng, etc.), once every 6~8 hours, 3~4 tablets each time. 22 cases were treated, and 16 were completely relieved, 5 relieved moderately, 1 ineffective.

Chronic renal failure

San Qi Tablet: 0.33g each tablet, 2 tablets, tid. 22 cases of chronic renal failure were treated with this method combining heteropathy, 10 were markedly effective, 9 improved and 3 ineffective.

Prostatic hyperplasia

Hua Yu San: san qi, wang bu liu xing, chuan shan jia, zhe chong, hu po, 50g each were grounded into powder and capsulated, 0.5g each capsule, 6 capsules each time, tid. 15 days as a course of treatment, 2~3 courses totally. 120 cases of prostatic hyperplasia were treted and 36 markedly effective, 68 effective and 16 ineffective.

Bleeding due to ulcer

San Qi Bai Ji Tang (experiential formula): san qi powder, bai ji powder, sheng da huang powder, 6g each; xian he cao, duan wa leng zi, 20g each; zhi shi 9g; chen pi, fu ling, 15g each; qing ban xia 10g. 1 dose every day. Modify the formula according to accompanied symptoms. 36 cases of bleeding due to gastric or duodenal ulcer were treated, 34 were cured, 1 markedly improved and 1 improved. The average hemostasis time was 4 days.

Ulcerative colitis

San Qi Zhen Zhu San No. 1: san qi 50g; zhen zhu 50g, er cha 50g, xue jie 50g, bai ji 50g, bing pian 15g, for patients with excessive bleeding. No. 2: san qi 50g, zhen zhu 15g, xue jie 50g, er cha 50g, bai ji 50g, bing pian 15g, da bei mu 50g, for large ulcers. 5~10g powder was added with 50~100 ml physiological saline for retention enema, once daily before sleep, 15 days as a course of treatment, 2~4 courses totally. Among 36 treated cases, 28 were basically cured, 7 improved and 1 ineffective.


san qi was grounded into very fine powder, 1~3g, tid, three days as a course of treatment, 1~2 courses totally. 26 cases (17 acute and 9 chronic) enteritis were treated, 23 cured and 3 improved.

 References Back to Top

Except those noted, all references come from Weng Weiliang, et al., Clinical Chinese materia medica, Henan Science & Technology Press, 1998